A single issue of Choke was published by Barbara Burden and Jeffrey Gubbins in 1976. The magazine’s title—a reference to the air quality in Los Angeles—was, according to the editors, also a wry comment on the way in which West Coast artists felt suffocated by the East Coast art world. It published original works and writings by Bruce Nauman, Chris Burden, Guy de Cointet, and Billy Adler. The editors vowed to publish a cost breakdown for each issue, explaining that the magazine’s policy of economic transparency ran counter to the approach of more mainstream art magazines, which depended on advertising by commercial galleries. Choke rejected paid advertising entirely—a strategy that unfortunately led to its demise after the first issue.